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2020

Experimental assessment of cycling ageing of lithium-ion second-life batteries from electric vehicles

Paper - 30 Jul 2020

The reutilization of batteries from electric vehicles allows to benefit from their remaining energy capacity and to increase their lifespan. The applications considered for the second life of these batteries are less demanding than electric vehicles regarding power and energy density. However, there is still some uncertainty regarding the technical and economic viability of these systems. In this context, the study of the ageing and lifetime of reused batteries is key to contribute to their development. This paper assesses the experimental cycle ageing of lithium-ion modules from different Nissan Leaf through accelerated cycling tests on their second life. The evolution of the internal parameters during ageing and the correlation between them are shown, including the analysis of best fitting curves. In addition, a second-life end-of-life criterion is proposed, based on capacity and internal resistance measurements during cells ageing, which can be applied to real application in order to prevent safety issues. By estimating future values from degradation trends and checking latter measurements, the ageing knee is identified. Results show that the modules operate for at least 2033 equivalent full cycles before reaching their ageing knee. This would mean more than 5 years of operation in a real second-life application, such as a photovoltaic self-consumption installation with daily cycling. Moreover, it is shown that a traditional cell characterisation based on capacity and internal resistance measurements is not enough to predict the durability of a cell during its second life.

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Integrated and dynamic energy modelling of a regional system: A cost-optimized approach in the deep decarbonisation of the Province of Trento (Italy)

Paper - 21 Jul 2020

Since the Kyoto Protocol (1997), the European Union has fought against climate change adopting European, national and regional policies to decarbonise the economy. Moreover, the Paris Agreement (2015) calls 2050 solutions between -80% and -100% of greenhouse gas emissions compared with 1990. Regions have an important role in curbing CO2 emissions, and tailor-made strategies considering local energy demands, savings potentials and renewables must be elaborated factoring in the social and economic context. An “optimized smart energy system” approach is proposed, considering: (I) integration of electricity, thermal and transport sectors, (II) hourly variability of productions and demands, (III) coupling the EnergyPLAN software, to develop integrated and dynamic scenarios, with a multi-objective evolutionary algorithm, to identify solutions optimized both in terms of CO2 emissions and costs, including decision variables for all the three energy sectors simultaneously. The methodology is tested at the regional scale for the Province of Trento (Italy) analyzing a total of 30,000 scenarios. Compared to the Baseline 2016, it is identified: (I) the strategic role of sector coupling among large hydroelectric production and electrification of thermal and transport demands (heat pumps, electric mobility), (II) slight increases in total annual cost, +14% for a -90% of CO2 emissions in 2050.

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Implementation of an Interactive Environment With Multilevel Wireless Links for Distributed Botanical Garden in University Campus

Paper - 17 Jul 2020

In this contribution, an end to end system to enable user interaction with a distributed botanical university campus garden is designed, implemented and tested. The proposed system employs different wireless links to collect data related to different bio physiological parameters of both the vegetation mass and the surrounding environment. Detailed analysis of these multilevel communication links is performed by using deterministic volumetric wireless channel estimation and considering underground, near ground and over ground radio propagation conditions. An in-house developed technique enables accurate wireless channel characterization for complete campus scenario considering the multiple link types and all its composing elements. Node definition and network topology is thus obtained by wireless channel analysis of over ground, near ground and underground communication for both 868 MHz and 2.4 GHz Wireless Sensor Networks in an inhomogeneous vegetation environment. Connectivity to enable user interaction as well as for telemetry and tele-control purposes within the campus is achieved by combining ZigBee and LoRaWAN transceivers with the corresponding sensor/actuator platforms. Coverage studies have been performed in order to assess communication capabilities in the set of multiple underground/near ground/over ground links, by means of deterministic channel analysis for the complete university campus location. Measurement results in lab environment as well as full system deployment are presented, showing good agreement with deterministic simulations. Moreover, system level tests have been performed over a physical campus cloud, providing adequate quality of experience metrics. The proposed solution is a scalable system that provides real time trees status monitoring by a cloud-based platform, enabling user interaction within a distributed botanical garden environment in the university campus. Link to publication

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Aggregator to Electric Vehicle LoRaWAN Based Communication Analysis in Vehicle-to-Grid Systems in Smart Cities

Paper - 07 Jul 2020

In this paper, wireless channel analysis for aggregator and electrical vehicle communication using Long-Range Wide Area Network (LoRaWAN) technology in V2G is presented, in order to test a low-cost solution with large coverage and reduced power consumption profile. Wireless channel and system-level measurements have been performed in a real urban scenario between EV’s charging station in Pamplona (Spain) and a vehicle in motion using LoRaWAN 868 MHz devices. Wireless channel characterization is performed by implementing a full 3D urban scenario model, including elements such as buildings, vehicles, users and urban infrastructure such as lamp posts and benches. By means of in-house developed 3D Ray Launching algorithm with hybrid simulation capabilities, estimations of received power levels, signal to noise ratio and time domain parameters have been obtained, for the complete volume of the scenario under test in dense urban conditions. V2G end to end communication has been validated by implementing an intra-vehicle Controller Area Network-BUS (CAN BUS) data gathering system connected to the vehicle LoRaWAN transceiver and subsequently, to a cloud-based web service. The results show that the accurate deterministic based radio channel analysis enables to optimize the network design of LoRaWAN networks in a vehicular environment, considering inter-vehicular and infrastructure links, enabling scalable, low cost end to end data exchange for the deployment of ancillary V2G services. Link to publication

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